Samuli Reijula

(né Pöyhönen)

Contact information

Email: samuli.reijula(at)
Mobile: +358-40-7281096
google scholar

curriculum_vitae (1/2018)

Research area
Philosophy of science

Current position

Postdoctoral researcher (Academy of Finland)
Social and Moral Philosophy, University of Helsinki

Research interests

Currently I’m mainly working on projects related to two topics:
(1) Science as a social system.
What are the social, cognitive and institutional conditions of well-functioning collective knowledge-production?
(2) Evidence-based policy.
How are findings from the behavioral sciences used to inform policy design? How should that translation (ideally) be done?

I’m also interested in the epistemology of simulation modelingcomputational social science, AI, and issues related to natural kinds and conceptual change.


  • 2008 – 2013: PhD, Philosophy. Social and Moral Philosophy, University of Helsinki
    Finnish Doctoral Programme of Philosophy.
    Supervisor: Petri Ylikoski
    External examiner: Carl Craver, St. Louis
  • 2007 –> : MA in Cognitive Science, University of Helsinki
  • 2002–2007 : MSocSci, Social and Moral philosophy, University of Helsinki
  • 2001 –> : Department of Engineering Design and Production, Helsinki University of Technology



  • Reijula, Samuli; Timo Ehrig; Konstantinos Katsikopoulos; Jaakko Kuorikoski; Shyam Sunder (forthcoming 2018). ”Nudge, Boost or Design? Limitations of behavioral policy under social interaction.“ The Journal of Behavioral Economics for Policy.


  • Reijula, Samuli & Jaakko Kuorikoski (forthcoming). “Modeling epistemic communities”, in M. Fricker, P.J. Graham, D. Henderson, N. Pedersen, J. Wyatt (eds.) The Routledge Handbook of Social Epistemology. [pdf]
  • Reijula, Samuli (2017). “How could a rational analysis model explain?” COGSCI 2017: 39th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society,  2975-2980. [link]
  • Pöyhönen, Samuli (2017). “Value of cognitive diversity in science”. Synthese, 194: 4519-4540. [pdf][link][online materials]
  • Kuorikoski, Jaakko & Samuli Pöyhönen. (forthcoming). “Kokeellinen yhteiskuntatiede”, in Kaidesoja, T; Kankainen, T; & Ylikoski, P (eds.) Syistä Selityksiin – Kausaliteetti ja selittäminen yhteiskuntatieteissä


  • Pöyhönen, Samuli (2016). ”Memory as a cognitive kind. Brains, remembering dyads and exograms”, in C. Kendig (ed.), Natural Kinds and Classification in Scientific Practice. London: Pickering & Chatto, 145–156.[link][pdf]
  • Pöyhönen, Samuli (2016). Psykologia tieteenalana ja asiakastyönä (Vesa Talvitie, Arkipsykologiasta aivotutkimukseen – kysymyksiä psykologian filosofiasta). Niin & Näin 3/16,132-134.[link][preprint pdf]


  • Ylikoski, Petri & Samuli Pöyhönen (2015). Addiction-as-kind hypothesis. International Journal of Alcohol and Drug Research, 4(1): 21–25.[pdf]


  • Pöyhönen, Samuli. (2014). “Explanatory power of extended cognition”, Philosophical Psychology, 27/5, 735-759. [pdf][doi]
  • Pöyhönen Samuli (2014). “Natural kinds and concept eliminativism”, in V. Karakostas and D. Dieks (eds.), EPSA11 Perspectives and Foundational Problems in Philosophy of Science, The European Philosophy of Science Association Proceedings 2, 167-179. [pdf]
  • Pöyhönen, Samuli. (2014). “Intentional concepts in cognitive neuroscience”, Philosophical Explorations, 17: 93–109 [pdf]


  • Pöyhönen, Samuli (2013). Chasing Phenomena. Studies on classification and conceptual change in the social and behavioral sciences. Doctoral Dissertation. Philosophical Studies from the University of Helsinki. [pdf]
  • Kuorikoski, Jaakko & Samuli Pöyhönen (2013). “Understanding non-modular functionality. Lessons from genetic algorithms”, Philosophy of Science, 80/5, 637-649. [pdf]
  • Kuorikoski, Jaakko & Pöyhönen, Samuli (2013). Evolution and Modularity: The limits of mechanistic explanation, COGSCI 2013, Proceedings of the annual meeting of the cognitive science society, 840–845.


  • Kuorikoski, Jaakko & Samuli Pöyhönen (2012). “Looping kinds and social mechanisms”, Sociological Theory, 30:3, 187–205. [pdf]
  • Rusanen, Anna-Mari & Samuli Pöyhönen (2012). “Concepts in change”, Science & Education. [pdf][link] DOI: 10.1007/s11191-012-9489-x
  • Pöyhönen, Samuli. “Carving the mind by its joints – Natural kinds and social construction in psychiatry”, in Milkowski, Martin, and Konrad Talmont-Kaminsky (eds.) Regarding Mind, Naturally. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, forthcoming (2012). [pdf]
  • Kokkonen, Tomi & Samuli Pöyhönen. (2012). “Olemukset piilopremisseinä argumentaatiossa”, in Ritola, Juho (ed). Tutkimuksia Argumentaatiosta, 191-206.
  • Pöyhönen, Samuli (2010). “Luonnollinen luokka” Logos-ensyklopedia. Syrjämäki, Sami, Kannisto, Toni & Järvilehto, Lauri (ed.). Eurooppalaisen filosofian seura ry.
  • Kuorikoski, Jaakko & Samuli Pöyhönen (2009). “Ihmistieteelliset luokitukset ja sosiaaliset takaisinkytkentämekanismit”, Tiede & Edistys, 4/09, 271-289.
  • Pöyhönen, Samuli (2007). “Luonnollisuuden rajoilla,” Master’s thesis (pro gradu).
    Full text (in Finnish). Abstract (in English).

Working papers

Forthcoming Presentations

  • 1/2018: “Social epistemologists against social learning”, Philosophical Society of Finland Colloquium, 2018.
  • 10/2017: “AI and philosophy”, panel discussion, Finnish Philosophical association and Cognitive Science joint event: AI and Philosophy.
  • 10/2017: “Research funding for the best – or to maverick scientists? Models and simulations as research tools in science studies. (in Finnish) Edistyksen Päivät, Helsinki.

Public Talks

  • 8/2017: “Should scientists really ignore their peers?” in the symposium The Simulationist Turn in Social Epistemology: new directions & challenges to received wisdom. EPSA 17, European Philosophy of Science Association biennial meeting, Exeter, UK.
  • 7/2017: “How could a rational analysis model explain?” CogSci 2017, London.
  • 1/2017: “What, when and how do rational analysis models explain?” MCMP, Munich.
  • 11/2016: “What, when and how do rational analysis models explain?” Philosophy of Science Association biannual conference, Atlanta.
  • 6/2016: “Causal Matrix for Addiction”,  Helsinki Symposium on Philosophy of Psychiatry
    (w/ Petri Ylikoski).
  • 5/2016: “Topological explanations in the social sciences.” Models and Simulations 7, Barcelona.
  • 4/2016: “Topological explanations in the social sciences.” Nordic Network for Philosophy of Science, Pärnu.
  • 1/2016: “Classification, knowledge, identity.” Mikkeli Academy 2016. Invited presentation. (in Finnish).
  • 11/2015: “The  journey from psychological theories to behavioural policy – and back”, 12. Conference of the International Network for Economic Method, University of Cape Town
  • 11/2015: “Social heuristics”, Invited lecture (in Finnish). Action, cognition and sociology (graduate course), University of Turku.
  • 11/2015: “Cognitive diversity in science.” Invited lecture (in Finnish). Cognitive science research seminar, University of Helsinki
  • 9/2015: “Will psychiatry become clinical neuroscience?” Philosophy of Psychiatry Summer Symposium, University of Helsinki
  • 6/2015: “Behaviorally informed policy and decision theory”, Society for Philosophy of Science in Practice (SPSP) Fifth Biennial Conference, Aarhus.
    w/ Jaakko Kuorikoski
  • 8/2015: “What, when, and how do rational analysis models explain?” CLMPS, Helsinki.
  • 12/2014: “Navigating an epistemic landscape,” Agent-Based Modeling in Philosophy, LMU Munich.
  • 11/2014: “Behaviorally informed policy and social interaction”, Philosophy of Science seminar, University of Helsinki (w/ Jaakko Kuorikoski et al.)
  • 9/2014: “Sidestepping complexity: Rational analysis explanations in cognitive science”, Causality and Complexity in the Sciences, University of Cologne.
  • 6/2014: “Science without natural kinds”, Kinds workshop, University of Tampere.
  • 6/2014: “Cognitive building blocks for social mechanisms”, Workshop on Social Explanation, University of Helsinki.
  • 6/2014: “Social scientific kinds and mechanisms”, Current Trends in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences II, University of Helsinki (w/ Petri Ylikoski)
  • 6/2014: “Cognitive building blocks for social mechanisms,” Workshop on Social Explanation, University of Helsinki (w/ Jaakko Kuorikoski)
  • 5/2014: “Computer simulations as tools for data integration in the social sciences: an inferential approach” Models and Simulations 6, University of Notre Dame. w/ Jaakko Kuorikoski
  • 3/2014: “Science without natural kinds.” Theoretical philosophy research seminar, University of Helsinki.
  • 11/2013: “The epistemic role of virtual experiments – an inferentialist account”, Inferentialism in Epistemology and Philosophy of Science, Madrid (w/ Jaakko Kuorikoski)
  • 9/2013: “Ilmiöiden jäljillä. Luokittelu ja käsitteenmuodostus ihmistieteissä”, Philosophical Society of Finland meeting, Helsinki.
  • 9/2013:  “Addiction as a neuro-social kind”, European Network for the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (ENPOSS) / Philosophy of Social Science Roundtable joint meeting, Venice (w/ Petri Ylikoski)
  • 9/2013: “Debating natural kinds” symposium, commentator. EPSA13, Helsinki.
  • 6/2013: “Invisible hand in the scientific community”, poster presentation, ABC Summer Institute, Max Planck Institute Berlin.
  • 12/2012: “Eliminating concepts”, ConChaMo workshop, Mustio / University of Helsinki
  • 11/2012: “Understanding non-modular functionality – lessons from genetic algorithms”, PSA 2012, San Diego (w/ Jaakko Kuorikoski)
  • 11/2012: “Philosophy of science perspective on pathological gambling: classification, mechanisms and interdisciplinary relations”, Neurogambling workshop, University of Helsinki (w/ Jaakko Kuorikoski)
  • 10/2012: “Addiction as a natural kind”, Addiction: What Is The Added Value Of The Concept Today?, Helsinki (w/ Petri Ylikoski)
  • 9/2012: “Mechanism-based extrapolation. The case of neuroscience of addiction”, Evidence and Causality in the Sciences, University of Kent (w/ Jaakko Kuorikoski)
  • 6/2012: “Understanding non-modular functionality – lessons from genetic algorithms”, Models and Simulations 5, Helsinki (w/ Jaakko Kuorikoski)
  • 5/2012: “Explanatory turn in extended cognition”, philosophy colloquium, Berlin School of Mind and Brain
  • 3/2012: “Explanatory turn in extended cognition”, Helsinki Philosophy of science research seminar
  • 2/2012: “Understanding non-modular functionality – lessons from genetic algorithms”, Helsinki Philosophy of science research seminar  (w/ Jaakko Kuorikoski)
  • 1/2012: “Invisible hand in the science community. Models of division of cognitive labor”, Finnish Philosophical Association annual meeting, Helsinki
  • 11/2011: “Where was my mind again? Explanatory turn in extended cognition”, Doctoral student congress, Tampere
  • 10/2011: “Should I split or should I lump? The epistemic-tool approach to scientific concept formation” EPSA 11, Athens.
  • 7/2011: “Should I split or should I lump? The epistemic-tool approach to scientific concept formation” 14th Congress of Logic, Methdology and Philosophy of Science, Nancy
  • 7/2011: “Conceptual change and conceptual games”, 11th International IHPST and 6th Greek History, Philosophy and Science Teaching Joint Conference, University of Thessaloniki.
  • 6/2011: “Category-based induction in science: the new toolkit”, POS summer seminar, Helsinki-Tallinn.
  • 5/2011: “The extended mind thesis – implications for scientific research” AivoAalto seminar
  • 5/2011: “Addiktio ja neurotiede” (Addiction and neuroscience). Psykologian filosofia -kollokvio,  Jyväskylän yliopisto. (w/ Petri Ylikoski)
  • 10/2010: “Olemukset piilopremisseinä argumentaatiossa”, Philosophy research seminar, University of Tampere. (w/ Tomi Kokkonen)
  • 9/2010: “Intentional concepts in cognitive neuroscience”, “A science of the soul” seminar, University of Helsinki
  • 9/2010: “Natural kinds with extended mechanisms”, Philosophy of science research seminar, University of Helsinki
  • 8/2010: “Intentional concepts in cognitive neuroscience”, ESPP 2010, Bochum
  • 8/2010: “Psychological Essentialism and Hidden Premises in Philosophical Argumentation”, ESPP 2010, Bochum (w/ Tomi Kokkonen)
  • 7/2010: “Inferentialism and scientific representation”, ISSCSS summer school, Latvia
  • 4/2010: “Natural kinds with extended mechanisms”, PPIG seminar, University of Edinburgh
  • 3/2010: “Interactive kinds and social mechanisms”, Philosophy of Social Science Roundtable 2010, St. Louis (w/ Jaakko Kuorikoski)
  • 12/2009: “Explanations or grammatical errors? The Wittgensteinian critique of cognitive neuroscience”, Philosophy of science research seminar, University of Helsinki.
  • 11/2009: “Essences as hidden premises” (olemukset piilopremisseinä), Suomalainen argumentaation tutkimus, Turku.
  • 9/2009: “Carving the psyche by its joints: Natural kinds and social construction in psychiatry”, Kazimierz naturalism workshop, Kazimierz, Poland.
  • 4/2009: “Towards a middle-range theory of looping kinds”, Purpose of social theory –workshop, University of Tampere.
  • 3/2009: “Ihmistieteelliset luokitukset ja sosiaalisen todellisuuden takaisinkytkentämekanismit”, Sosiologipäivät, Helsinki.
  • 6/2008: ”Essentialist reasoning and social categories”, Mechanisms and Everyday Reasoning –workshop, University of Helsinki.
  • 4/2008: ”Carving social reality by its joints. The theory of natural kinds and classifications in the human sciences”, Philosophy of science research seminar, University of Helsinki.
  • 11/2007: ”Dialectic of sign and referent. Looping effects of representations in the human sciences.”, Current European Semiotics, Tarto.

Teaching experience

  • 2017, 2016, 2015: “Introduction to argumentation and philosophy of social science”, Online course. University of Helsinki / Open University.  (5 cr)
  • 2017, 2016, 2015: “Philosophy of the Social Sciences.” University of Helsinki (5 cr)
  • 2015: “Explaining the Mind.” Cognitive science, University of Helsinki (5 cr). Autumn 2015.
  • 2014: “Philosophy of Psychology.” University of Helsinki.
  • 2014: “Cognitive science of science.” University of Helsinki (with Miles MacLeod and Tuukka Kaidesoja).
  • 2014: “Philosophy of the Social Sciences.” University of Helsinki (with Caterina Marchionni)
  • 2014: “Philosophical thinking – methods for philosophers”, University of Helsinki (w/ Pekka Mäkelä & Jaakko Kuorikoski)
  • 2013: “Introduction to the philosophy of psychology.” University of Helsinki
  • 2012: “Scientific argumentation and explanation.” Online course. Cognitive Science, University Helsinki / Open University Finland.
  • 2008-2012 (x4): “Scientific argumentation and explanation”, Cognitive Science (cog121), University of Helsinki
  • 2012 “Scientific argumentation and philosophy of science” (w/ Jaakko Kuorikoski & Pekka Mäkelä), Faculty of the social sciences, University of Helsinki
  • 2011: “Reading seminar in the philosophy of social science”, Social and Moral Philosophy, University of Helsinki
  • 2009: FF1 Introduction to philosophy, FF3 Science and scientific knowledge, Tapiola High School.”

Research visits & activities

  • 1/2017: Munich Centre for Mathematical Philosophy
  • 8/2016-7/2017: ARC @ Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin.
    (funded by the post-doc pool / Kone foundation)
  • 4-9/2012: Berlin School of Mind and Brain. Visiting postgraduate researcher.
    (Host: Prof. Michael Pauen)
  • 7/2010: Graduate International Summer School in Cognitive Sciences and Semantics 2010 (ISSCSS): Analytic Pragmatism, Semantic Inferentialism, and Logical Expressivism. Riga, Latvia.
  • 2-5/2010: University of Edinburgh. Visiting postgraduate researcher.
    (Host: Prof. Andy Clark)


  • Foundations of classification and category-based induction in the social and behavioral sciences.
    3-year personal post-doc project funded by the Academy of Finland 
  • Finnish Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of Social Science (TINT)
    University of Helsinki
  • INSOSCI. The integration of cross-disciplinary research in neuroscience and social science – a methodological case study on economic policies and the neuroscience of agency
    European Research Projects on ELSA of Neuroscience
  • Cognitive science (part-time teacher), University of Helsinki

Past projects & affiliations